Aristotle (384-322 BC) is credited with the first observation of myopia as a visual condition. Galen created the term myopia from Myein (to close) and pos (eye) as he observed individuals with myopia close the eyes (squint) to see better.
In order to understand Myopia, one must understand basic eye physiology. Light is reflected off objects and enters the eye through several lens-like elements that bend, or refract, the light rays. The purpose of the bending of the light rays is to focus them on the light-sensitive tissue in the back of our eyes, the Retina. When light rays reflected off an object we look at are focused on the Retina properly, the object will look clear to us. If the light rays are bent too much, they will focus to a point in front of the retina and spread out again by the time they reach the retina. The result is a blurred Retinal image. Myopia, or Nearsightedness, occurs when the refractive power of the eye focuses light to a point before reaching the retina.
The image is focused at a point in front of the retina causing an unfocused or blurred retinal image as the light spreads out again behind the focal point.